Medical Dictionary

We can find various types of dictionary in this modern society. Among them, dictionaries for different languages are the main types of dictionary. And also there are some dictionaries which are specialized for some particular subjects. Among them, medical dictionary is one significant dictionary. This medical dictionary is used to research and learn about medical terminology, pharmaceutical drugs, healthcare equipment, health conditions, medical devices, medical abbreviations and more. Even this dictionary type is not used by ordinary people, this is useful to doctors, to people who are engaging in medical industry and to students who are planning to come to medical field. And the history of this medical dictionary started from 1905.

History of Medical Dictionary

In 1905, Henry wrote the first edition of the first medical dictionary by referring a book held in the library of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. As it started its journey like that, this dictionary type had to face many issues later. That was the translation issue. When it was translated into other languages, it was hard to translate/convert/edit its’ words and meanings. Today this dictionary has more than thousands of words from all areas of medicine and healthcare. And it is in different languages also. With the technology development, this is not published as just a book. Now you can find the online versions of this medical dictionary also. However, these are offering concise and easily accessible information for users searching for descriptions of over-the-counter or prescription medications, medical abbreviations, test procedures, medical research topics, or illnesses. There are numerous medical dictionaries can be seen in the internet. Among them, the below online medical dictionaries are popular in the world.

www.online-medical-dictionary.org
medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
www.medicinenet.com/medterms-medical-dictionary/article.htmMedical Dictionary

ABCD


ABCD … English alphabet, which is one of most usable alphabets in the world as many people are using it. Actually this English is a language of West Germanic, related to Scots, Dutch, Frisian and German. And it is with a significant amount of vocabulary from Old Norse, Norman French, Latin and Greek, and loanwords from many other languages also. It is said that approximately 341 million people are speaking English as their native language. As a second language, there are about 267 million speak this English in over 104 countries. Some of countries are UK, Ireland, USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Botswana, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, and the Cook Islands.
When we look into the history of English, it runs to 5th Century AD. It had grown from Germanic languages. But Angles, Saxons, Jutes and other Germanic Tribes had brought this to Britain. So that language was called as Anglo-Saxon or Old English. And it was began to act in writing during the 5th century AD.
With passing time, the printing was introduced by Britain in around 1469 by William Caxton. Then then in 1604, the first English dictionary was published by Robert Cawdrey’s Table Alphabeticall. Before 17th century, English spread from England to Wales, Scotland and other parts of the British Isles, and also to Ireland only. But from 17th century onwards, it was spread to other parts of the world via trade and colonization. That’s how modern English – abcd came to use. Even in Sri Lanka, we are using abcd – English alphabet as our second language. So, it is essential to know the abcd English alphabet. And abcd is useful to teach our kids the English language since their childhood.

ABCD – Modern English Alphabet

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Even using same English letters – abcd, there is a different of pronunciations from country to country. The vowels and diphthongs used in standard varieties of English spoken in the USA, Australia, England, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, Scotland and Wales. The significant different comes from the vowel sounds.abcd

Jana Kavi

Jana Kavi are songs originating among our Sri Lankan ancestors, passed by oral tradition from generation to generation and marked generally by simple, modal melody and narrative verse. When our ancestors were at their day-to-day work, they used to sing these Jana Kavi in order to forget their tiredness and to relief from their pains and to take out their laziness. Therefore, these songs are describing their simple minds, explaining their tiredness as well as explaining their interests on their work. Especially when they worked in paddy fields, mines and when they were rowing boats, while they transported goods in carts, they used to sing these folk songs. Not only that, our old mothers used to sing lullabies when they tried to get sleep their kids.
Actually these Jana Kavi has played a vital role in Sri Lankan society especially in its cultural development. Each country has their own folk songs, but these Jana Kavi are always unique for Sri Lanka. These Sri Lankan folk songs have many categories, such as Virindu, Onchili Waram, Gal Kavi (Karaththa Kavi), Paaru Kavi, Goyam Kavi, See Pada, Nalawili Gee and so on. Each category has its own styles.

Future of Jana Kavi

Certainly, we are lucky to have such a rich heritage of Jana Kavi to use in our teaching. But sad to say, our new generation is moving away from this kind of areas. In order to familiarize our new generation with these beautiful folk sings, find some Kavi above….Jana Kavi

 

Sinhala Hodiya


With the living pattern of human beings are developing, the various methods to express the ideas are also found. Among those various methods, “language” is one of important things. Today, there are many languages and while each country has its’ own language, there are some common languages also. When focusing on Sri Lanka, “Sinhala” is accepted as the state language and to write Sinhala Language, Sinhala Hodiya is used. This has very long history and it is about 2500 years. It is founded that before expressing his/her thoughts by using alphabets, the man used various types of impressive handmade pictures.it was around 3200 BCE. It is said that the history of the alphabet started in ancient Egypt in 2700 BCE. As other many languages, Sinhala is the language which is written from left to right side. And it is considered that orgin of Sinhala alphabets was based on brahmi alphabets. Today, in Sinhala Hodiya, we can see three versions there; Pure Sinhala (Elu hodiya), the Mixed Sinhala Hodiya and the accepted Sinhala Hodiya (sammatha sinhala akshara malawa).

More about Sinhala Hodiya

The Pure Sinhala Alphabet consists of 12 vowels and 25 consonants. And this mixed Sinhala alphabet consists of 18 vowels and 41 consonants. There are 20 vowels and 41 consonants in the accepted Sinhala Alphabet.
In Sinhala Alphabet, there are some signs used to define multiple sound values and these signs are called “pili” (vowel strokes). They are; “Elapilla”, “Ispilla”and “Papilla”. When it is used as “digu” (long) to these signs, the vowel is sounded for longer. They are; “Digu Papilla” and “Digu Ispilla”. And some signs are using twice also.
The Burmese alphabet is composed of circular shapes that must always be drawn clockwise and it is considered as the most beautiful alphabet in the world and the second place goes to Sinhala alphabet. The Georgian alphabet and Tagalog (Philippines) alphabet are considered as 03rd and 04th most elegance alphabets in the world respectively. Sinhala Hodiya

Sinhala English Dictionary

Even though Sinhala is the state language in Sri Lanka, English is the most usable language in business world. Hence, English language is the most vital language in present days. When we need to translate particular thing which is written in English language into Sinhala language, Dictionary is the thing that we need. As Sri Lankans, “Sinhala English dictionary” is the most essential dictionary type we need. Dictionary is a book that contains a list of words in alphabetical order and that explains their meanings, or gives a word for them in another language. The history of dictionary runs into 2300 BC. That’s the time of Akkadian’s sovereignty. In 1755, Samuel Johnson wrote the first complicated English dictionary. It included around 42,000 meanings, after that, Noah Wabster published the first American English dictionary in 1828. It included around 70,000 meanings.  With the passing time and with many improvements, in 1884, James Murray published the Oxford English dictionary. That Oxford English dictionary contains around 400,000 meanings. And, the Century dictionary was published with around 500, 000 meanings in 1889. However, today the dictionary is used by many countries for translating many languages. Among all types of dictionaries, Oxford, Cambridge dictionaries are getting priority. As I mentioned before, Sinhala English Dictionary is the most useful and important dictionary for us as Sri Lankans.  This dictionary also has a history. But when we say as “Sinhala English Dictionary”, most of us can recall the name “Malalasekara Dictionary”, because that is the most popular Sinhala English Dictionary here.  The 1st edition of this Malalasekara Dictionary was published in 1948.

With the technology development, this dictionary has also been converted into digital source. As the result of that, “Dictionary.com” launched the first online dictionary in 1995, with around 1,400,000 meanings. Today, there are many online dictionaries can be found. Among them, the most popular 10 online dictionaries can be mentioned as below.

Wiktionary

Google Dictionary

Dictionary.com

The Free Dictionary

Merriam-Webster Online

Cambridge Dictionary Online

Visuwords

Wordia

NetLingo

Urban Dictionary

 

In Sri Lanka also, we can find several online Sinhala English Dictionary. Among them “Madura” Sinhala English Dictionary and “Google” Sinhala English Dictionary are most popular dictionaries.

“Madura” Sinhala English Dictionary, a very valuable innovation is invented by a Sri Lankan. If anyone wants to download this Sinhala English Dictionary, he/she can download it or if anyone likes to use it as “online version”, that person can use it as it is. There are about 230,000 meaning in this Madura Sinhala English Dictionary and it covers various subjects/areas such as medical science, logics, engineering, accountancy, arts and so on. Today, you can get this Madura Sinhala English Dictionary to your mobile phone via Google Play Store.

As mentioned above, the second most popular online Sinhala English Dictionary is “Google” Sinhala English Dictionary. Even this Sinhala English Dictionary is not 100% accurate when giving meanings, it is a Sinhala English Dictionary, being rapidly developed day by day and it is popular among users. When you search in Google as “Sinhala English Dictionary”, it gives this “Google Dictionary” as the first result and you can find your words/meanings without going to another website. It is one of main advantages that Google has given to its’ users. By using this dictionary, not only “Sinhala” and “English” languages, but also you can translate any word to some other languages also. However, this Google dictionary will be the most improved online Sinhala English Dictionary in near future.

 

Sources